Effects of temperament on the development of externalizing and internalizing behaviors over 9 years.
Keiley, M. K., Bates, J. E., Dodge, K. A., & Pettit, G. S. (2001). Effects of temperament on the development of externalizing and internalizing behaviors over 9 years. In F. Columbus (Ed.), Advances in psychological research, Vol. 6 (pp. 255-288). Huntington, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
Abstract: Change in mothers’ reported monitoring and awareness of their children’s activities and companions across Grades 5, 6, 8, and 11 were examined with the use of latent factor growth modeling. Proactive parenting and resistant-to-control (RTC) child temperament assessed prior to kindergarten, as well as parents’ worries about their children’s behavior in Grades 5 and 8, were tested as factors associated with change in monitoring over time. Higher proactive parenting, lower RTC temperament, and the mounting of a successful campaign to change their children’s behavior were associated with higher monitoring scores overall. Monitoring levels decreased across time, but the rate of decline was steeper among mothers with high RTC children and slower among mothers who mounted a campaign and judged it to be effective. These findings shed light on factors contributing to continuity and change across development in a key domain of parenting.