Patterns of after-school care in middle childhood: Risk factors and developmental outcomes.
Pettit, G. S., Laird, R. D., Bates, J. E., & Dodge, K. A. (1997). Patterns of after-school care in middle childhood: Risk factors and developmental outcomes. Merrill - Palmer Quarterly, 43(3), 515.
Abstract: Child sex was considered as a variable that might be associated with patterning of care, and as a variable that might interact with patterning of care in the prediction of child adjustment. Because self-care often is the focal point in discussions about the risks associated with the ASC experience, self-care was examined in relation to two possible risk-moderating conditions. [...]children showing early signs of antisocial behavior may be most vulnerable in a self-care arrangement, where lack of adult supervision exacerbates the problem behavior. Self-care also was associated with poorer academic outcomes (lower GPAs and achievement test scores), and poorer behavioral adjustment (lower social competence) independently of SES. Because self-care children spend less time in constructive and school-relevant pursuits, compared to children in more structured, adult-supervised forms of care (Posner & Vandell, 1994), they may miss out on opportunities for developing academic and social competencies. [...]in the present study we have documented linkages between children's after-school experiences in the elementary-school years and children's social, behavioral, and academic adjustment in sixth grade.